NOTE: my assessment tool: The patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9

Main Post

 

According  to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1995),  children and adolescents are evaluated due to psychiatric disorders that  impair emotional, cognitive, physical, and/or behavioral functioning.  The child or adolescent is evaluated in the context of the family,  school, community, and culture. The purpose and aims of the clinical  diagnostic assessment are to determine whether psychopathology is  present and, if so, to establish a differential diagnosis and tentative  diagnostic formulation, to develop a treatment recommendation and plan,  or to communicate the above findings in an appropriate fashion to the  parents and child. In addition, the aims of the assessment process are  to identify the stated reasons and factors leading to the referral, to  assess the nature and severity of the child’s behavioral difficulties,  functional impairments, subjective distress, and to identify individual,  family, or environmental factors that may potentially account for,  influence, or ameliorate these difficulties. When assessing children,  parents’ interviews and school functioning reports are necessary.

The  assessment tool I will discuss in this post is the Screen for Child  Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Per the University of  Pittsburg (2019), SCARED is a child and parent self-report instrument  used to screen for childhood anxiety disorders including general anxiety  disorder, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social  phobia. In addition, it assesses symptoms related to school phobia. The  SCARED consists of 41 items and 5 factors that parallel the DSM-IV  classification of anxiety disorders. The child and parent versions of  the SCARED have moderate parent-child agreement and good internal  consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity, and it  is sensitive to treatment response

Target populationChildren ages 8-18 years

Intended usersClinicians and Psychiatrists

Time to Administer10 minutes

Completed byChildren and Parents

How to Use SCARED:  SCARED is a questionnaire with scales that describes how people feel.  Clients read each phrase and decide if it is “Not True or Hardly Ever  True” or “Somewhat True or Sometimes True” or “Very True or Often True”.  Then, for each sentence, they fill in one circle that corresponds to  the response that seems to describe them for the last 3 months. After  each phrase and circles, there are abbreviations of the various  disorders. Therefore,

a total score of >25 may indicate the presence of an Anxiety Disorder.  Scores higher than 40 are more specific.

A score of 7 for items 1, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, 34, 38 may indicate Panic Disorder or Significant Somatic Symptoms (PN).  

A score of 9 for items 5, 7, 14, 21, 23, 28, 33, 35, 37 may indicate Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GD).  

A score of 5 for items 4, 8, 13, 16, 20, 25, 29, 31 may indicate Separation Anxiety Disorder (SP).  

A score of 8 for items 3, 10, 26, 32, 39, 40, 41 may indicate Social Anxiety Disorder (SC)

A score of 3 for items 2, 11, 17, 36 may indicate Significant School Avoidance (SN)

(see the attached document or link, it’s the SCARED assessment and how the score is calculated: source http://www.shared-care.ca/files/SCARED_Child_Updated_June_2015.pdf)

Psychometric Properties:  There are accumulating studies that have shown the SCARED to have good  psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various  cultures, so SCARED can be utilized in various countries as a  cross-cultural screening instrument for DSM-V anxiety disorders. The  psychometric properties of the SCARED are strong because females scored  significantly higher than males, and that age had a moderating effect on  male and female score differences. Studies have demonstrated that girls  run a higher risk of developing anxiety disorders than boys. The  moderating effect of age on anxiety symptoms, particularly generalized  anxiety disorder symptoms increases for older girls that may highlight  the importance of early interventions for them to help reduce the risk  for later developmental maladaptation (Crocetti et al., 2011)

Diagnosis for a Client Receiving Psychotherapy: Possible diagnoses for these clients under Anxiety Disorders are Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (fear  of places and situations that might cause panic, helplessness, or  embarrassment), Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder  (formerly Social Phobia), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (American  Psychiatric Association, 2017).

Legal and Ethical Implications of Counseling Children: The four  ethical/ legal issues that arise when counseling children are counselor  competence, informed consent, confidentiality, and mandatory reporting  of child abuse. Counselor Competence–  that is knowledge and skills of the counselor (e.g. use of play  therapy), knowledge of mental disorders, understanding human  development, understanding family structure, culture/ diversity, and a  more talked about topic (transgender). Informed Consent–  It is formal permission that allows treatment. The counselor and client  fall under legal jurisdiction of contract law. Minors can only enter a  contract by parental / guardian consent, involuntary at parent’s  insistence, or ordered by juvenile court. Through informed consents,  clients are given voluntary knowledge of treatment, must understand  consequences of treatment, and if not obtained, counselors are held  responsible, and sued for battery, failure to gain consent, & child  enticement. Confidentiality  must be maintained so it will not cause lack of trust and  communication, child not seeking treatment, or early termination of  psychotherapy. Mandatory Reporting:  mental health professionals must report in all States. It’s the duty of  health care providers to report and failure to report breaches legal  and ethical standards (Garnsey, n.d.)

References

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1995).

Practice Parameters for the Psychiatric Assessment of Children and Adolescents.

Retrieved March 2, 2020, from

https://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/practice_parameters/psychiatric_asse

American Psychiatric Association (2013).

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

Retrieved March 2, 2020, from

https://dsm-psychiatryonline-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/doi/book/10.1176/appi.books.97

American Psychiatric Association (2017). What Are Anxiety Disorders?

Retrieved March 3, 2020, from

https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorder

Crocetti, E., Meeus, W. H. J., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., William, W. H. (2011).

A meta-analysis of the cross-cultural psychometric properties of the Screen for Child

Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Retrieved March 3, 2020, from

https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=de03210f-a792-44d7-bb

Garnsey, E. (n.d.). Legal and Ethical Issues When Counseling Children.

Retrieved March 3, 2020, from

https://eportfolio.pace.edu/artefact/file/download.php?file=112508&view=76785

Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED)- (2012).

CHILD Version—Page 1 of 2 (to be filled out by the CHILD)

Retrieved March 3, 2019, from

http://www.shared-care.ca/files/SCARED_Child_Updated_June_2015.pdf

University of Pittsburg (2019). Instruments- Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional

Disorders (SCARED). Retrieved March 2, 2020, from

https://www.pediatricbipolar.pitt.edu/resources/instruments

SCARED_Child_Updated_June_2015.pdf

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

In the dynamic world we currently live in, it’s becoming increasingly difficult for students to balance academics, co-curricular activities and entertainment among others. Students are required to submit countless assignments in a short time frame. These assignments should not be taken lightly as they form a major part of the grade when it comes to the end of the semester. Understanding the value of education and how these grades are important to students, Infinite Essays has made it its mission in life to offer customized essays to students at an affordable cost.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

There are plenty of reasons why you should order a paper with Infinite Essays. We have reliable writers who are also very competent. They have over the years managed to work under tight schedules and deadlines. Whenever you order an essay with Infinite Essays, you are guaranteed a fast turnaround of your project and this is done on time. Other than writing custom papers, our writers provide value added services that include academic assistance in the areas that they have specialized in. We ensure that the work that we offer is free of plagiarism. Infinite Essays does not condone plagiarism in whatsoever manner. Our writers are very experienced and can handle of sorts of formats such as Turabian, Chicago, Harvard as well as APA and MLA. Infinite Essays covers a wide range of topics. At the moment, we specialize with over 68 topics. We understand the importance of maintaining confidentiality when dealing with our clients. It’s for this reason that we will never reveal the identity of our clients to whoever may be interested. Finally, we offer the most competitive rates in the industry.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

Whenever you want to make an order with us, you will use our automated online ordering system. If you are having some difficulties of any sort, feel free to contact our live support and they will be more than happy to assist you. Ensure that you fill all the relevant information regarding your order. This is the area where you have to include the deadline of your assignment, the formatting style to be used and even the kind of academic paper you desire. The more information you give to our writers, the better.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

Brief explanations of how our services work 1. Provide us with the necessary instructions. Go to the Order Now page and click the order now button. This is the part where you have to attach all the relevant attachments. At the same time, remember to add the instructions sheet here. Once you are sure that you have submitted all relevant information, please submit the final draft to us. 2. The second step will involve paying for the services. This is where an invoice will be sent to you. However, the easiest process is clicking the payment link and following all the prompts that come along. At the moment, all payments are made through PayPal only. 3. Working on your paper. Once you have made the payment, we will assign the order to a writer who will follow the instructions. Remember that our writers will spend countless hour laboring to ensure that the work they provide is meticulously researched. 4. Download your paper. When the writer is finished with the assignment, they will submit it to our writers who will then go through the paper to ensure that the paper has followed all instructions and there are no grammatical errors. We will then forward a copy of the assignment to your email. 5. Tell your friends. We always happy to receive a referral. Whenever a friend tells us that you recommended our services to them, we will give you a 40 percent discount for your next order. Whenever you have provided us with the necessary details, we will forward them to qualified writers who will handle the assignment for you. Remember that the writers will begin working on the assignment immediately. This is the sole reason we encourage our clients to provide their exact specifications during the first time.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

Tackling an order may be challenging but we always offer the best. Before the assignment can be passed to you by our writers, it will be passed through a team of qualified editors and proofreaders to ensure that the paper is accurate and of the required quality. Once the editors are satisfied with the assignment, they will forward the assignment to your account and a copy to your email.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

Discounts We offer the best prices in the industry. We currently have a 20 percent discount for all of our customers. If you feel the budget is putting a strain on you, contact our live support and they might consider you case. We treat each case differently. Remember that our main goal is to continue with education transformation. At the moment, we only accept payments in form of PayPal.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline

Why Choose Us While there are many companies in the writing service industry claiming to offer platinum services, none can match the services offered by Infinite Essays. Some of our writers have been with us since 2010. The testimonials that have been written by some of our happy customers is an indication of the good services that we offer.

Click HERE to order a unique plagiarism free paper done by 

professional writers and delivered before your deadline