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Question Description

(Response 1 need 250 word with cited reference)

Cybercrime has increased throughout the years as we rely more and more on technology and saving our data and important information on files on computers. Now, there are many different attacks that people committing cybercrime use to gain access to information. In cyberspace there are no limits as to how far a perpetrator will go. As Prislan and Bernik (2012) state, “It is important to correctly comprehend cyberspace as it is-a ‘place’ where perpetrators and threats know no national borders or physical limitations.” They are talking about the fact that Governments and Organizations need to understand that there are perpetrators out there constantly trying to gain access to your information and everyone needs to understand that cyberspace is not just a word, it is a place that these threats exist and they need to do what they can to not become vulnerable to them and fall victim.

How might the growth of cybercrimes shape the ways in which the Internet continues to grow in the future?

The growth in cybercrimes will shape the ways in which the Internet grows by businesses deciding what they are going to have as allowed websites that their employees are able to access. The businesses will review the risks on how they build their business models and have to find ways to not become vulnerable to cybercrimes. All of this will also have an effect as to what the government will have as allowable websites depending on each country they may be different. One of my friends went to China and said that he cannot get on Facebook while he was in China, so he had to wait to post all of his pictures when he got back home to the United States. Many people can research anything on YouTube videos and websites will be prohibited.

How does public discourse represent the problem of cybercrime?

Public discourse represents the problem of cybercrime as a bad thing, in one way, but then there are other situations that the Government can be part of cybercrime and or be using it to get information on other countries. However, if there are espionage cases, then sometimes the companies do not want the public to hear about their company being hacked due to them losing out on business. They want to public to believe that their security systems are great and keeping people’s information secure. However, there are always going to be perpetrators wanting to earn that extra dollar by stealing information and selling it, so people are on YouTube looking up ways to hack into systems and following groups on Facebook to get in contact with other hackers.

Is cybercrime inevitable in a connected and globalized world?

Cybercrime is not inevitable in a connected globalized word, everyone just needs to take the right countermeasures and do what they can to protect their information, especially on critical infrastructures. This starts with the Governments and trickles down to Organizations and all the way down to individuals. Security is not just a job for security specialists to do, everyone needs to do their part to keep their information secure and not just at work, but at home as well. However, the Government needs to provide a safe environment and help individuals feel they have a strong support system.

Is their evidence that cybercrime involves organized crime groups, or is it an individual criminal act performed by a lone person or a group of hackers?

After reading, “Organizations and Cybercrime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groups engaged in Cyber Crime,” (Broadhurst, Grabosky, Alazab, & Chon, 2014) states that cybercrimes involve organized crime groups. Even if there is an individual who is accused of committing cybercrime, there is a group somewhere that he or she got the information from and followed. Especially the big organized cybercrimes, such as the DrinkorDie, which consisted of 65 members in 12 countries. (Broadhurst, Grabosky, Alazab, & Chon, 2014) they also state that cybercrimes are committed for profit, however, this one was not committed for profit and rather to compete with other pirate groups.


Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., & Chon, S. (2014). Organizations and Cybercrime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groups engaged in Cyber Crime. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(1), 1–20. Retrieved from

Prislan, K., & Bernik, I. (2012). Global and national take on state information warfare. Journal of Information Warfare, 11(2), 37–IV. Retrieved from

(Response 2 need 250 word with cited reference)

As the use of the Internet and digital technologies has burgeoned in the last two decades, the means of committing cyber-based crimes has expanded as well. At the beginning of the digital era the Internet was mostly unregulated and many web-based deviant acts were not against the law at the time. These circumstances of the early technology set the stage for malicious behavior on the Internet. During the time most of this behavior was rudimentary compared to today’s standard of cyber criminal. Cyber crime has since developed to include large-scale organized crime and even state-sponsored cyber crime. Prislan and Bernik explain that in the modern world information power has a crucial effect on success (2012, p. 37). Most information is now stored digitally and foreign entities have taken to cyber space to illegally obtain technology secrets or other valuable data in order to gain an advantage over other countries.

In regards to the inevitably of cyber crime, technology is interfaced by people and people generally have propensities toward criminal behavior. Insomuch in this week’s reading Agustina (2015) quotes Felson whom states “this is nothing more than the biblical notion that human beings are morally weak and that each individual needs help from society in order to withstand immoral temptations and pressures” (Felson, 1994, p. 16). In other words, the structure of society helps to repress immoral and criminal behavior through the disciplining of norms and values. Society enforces norms through multiple types of techniques to include the criminal justice system. People without the checks and balances associated with social structures are more susceptible to criminal or deviant behavior.

The Internet in a way provides an environment that lacks the social structure that people are accustomed to. An individual can leverage anonymity and carry out immoral behavior on the Internet with the reduced risk of consequences. In social media spaces and chat rooms people can make about any disparaging comment to another that they want and the victim would have very little means of reprisal. When compared to other “real-life” social environments such as a school playground or the workplace, there are real consequences to the words we speak and the actions we take. Augustina further explains the circumstances of cyber crime by stating, “digital architectures generate an atmosphere of anonymity that protects, promotes, and nourishes new methods of attack against people and institutions (2015, p. 36).

The range for the types of cyber crimes and perpetuators of cyber crimes is widespread. One side of the spectrum consists of individual actors and smaller crimes such as on-line gambling, while the other extreme consists of state-sponsored espionage or even cyber terrorism. The potential types of crime are as expansive as “real-life” crimes. Additionally, some people may perceive a lower threshold of social reprisal, which will increase the likelihood of an individual carrying out the crime. These circumstances underline the importance of security professionals becoming knowledgeable on cyber security and enabling effective cyber security programs.




Agustina J. (2015). Understanding Cyber Victimization: Digital Architectures and the Disinhibition Effect. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 35–54.…

Felson, M. (1994), Crime and Everyday Life (1sted.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Prislan, K., & Bernik, I. (2012). Global and national take on state information warfare. Journal of Information Warfare, 11(2), 37-53,IV. Retrieved from

(Response 3 need 250 word with cited reference)

Unfortunately, it seems like having a bad leader is common for almost everyone to experience. Although it can be troubling times, there is a lot to learn from these individuals. Behind all of the bad choices, there is a reason that those decisions were made that could play a key role in answering the “why”. As the Root Cause Analysis article stated, these three reasons are physical, human, or oganization causes (Mind, n.d). When specifically looking at bad leadership, I think this could be further broken down into either human or organizational causes.

The first element that I think makes a bad leader is the lack of knowledge of guiding regulations. I understand that there are many regulations that need to be followed however, the ones that are directly relevant need to be memorized in my opinion. For example, HIPAA is extremely important in every organization but, specifically in the military it is a constant reminder. While I was on active duty, I found out I was pregnant and even though it was not mandated I informed my leadership that I was. I told them that I only informed them for the sake of manning movements and did not want anyone else to know. The individual who was in charge of my flight told everyone that I was pregnant while I was at a training exercise for a month, even after I specifically said I did not want anyone know. In my opinion, this is an extremely poor decision on behalf of the leadership. If I cannot invest my trust with you on simple tasks like that, there is no way I could invest my trust for bigger picture items. Additionally, even after this individual’s supervisors were informed, there were no repercussions which just further reinforced bad behvaior. As a leader, you should do everything in your power to ensure your subordinates put their full trust in you and when you jepordize that with personal medical information, it is almost impossible to gain it back.

The next would be leaders who will ask their subordinates to do the things that they are not willing to do themselves. It happens very often that taskings come down from higher leadership and the managers do not want to complete it so they push it down to a lower level. There are some tasks that are completely fine to be pushed down to that level. However, I have seen many times that bad leadership will task their people with things they don’t even know how to do. Instead of admitting that and learning, they push it off to someone else.

Lastly, the most important element a leadership team needs to have is proper communication. There needs to be open communication established between all levels of leadership and subordinates. I have seen many times that the leadership team isn’t communicating with each other and a single individual is getting multiple pieces of information that all conflict with eachother. This type of environment can be extremely frustrating and causes individuals to lose faith in their leadership’s abilities.

I have personally seen many of these issues with bad leadership but, it has helped me learn what not to do. It can be frustrating however, it is a good learning experience.


Mind Tools. (n.d). Root Cause Analysis. Retrieved from:

HHS. (2019). Security Rule Guidance Material. Retrieved from:

(My answer)

Most people have had to work with a poor leader. One of the elements of a poor leader is lack of vision. Vision is very crucial for the success of any organization or any project. The leader has to be well aware why things are being done the way they are and what they aim to achieve. A good leader should be able to push the others forward. Therefore, he or she should have a vision, this helps the leader to know what is expected in the future and what the employees should be working towards. He or she is able to drive the team to work towards tomorrow. A poor leader is just satisfied at been in the current position and the status that they have and they do not go out of their way. They have no focus for the future and they lack a clear plan on how to improve in the future. Poor communication is the other element a poor leader. Communication is key to the success of any organization and it is therefore important that all the leaders are able to communicate with the employees well(Politis, 2001). A leader who is not able to communicate well is a poor leader. Great communication skills are one of the most important skills that a leader ought to have. Having a good plan may not matter if a leader is not able to communicate the same to the employees. A leader should be able to communicate the plan in a way that is easy to understand and should also be motivating.

A poor leader also does not know how to listen to the employees well, the employees should also be able to communicate the ideas that they have. Another element of a bad leader is a lack of adaptability. A poor leader is not able to adapt to any changes that take place in the organization. The leader has to come up with different ways that will motivate employees, this is because the employees are different and what motivates one employee may not motivate the other. A poor leader lacks this kind of skills which are crucial in order to ensure the employees are giving their best(Hersey et al, 2007). One of the leader that I worked under in the past a felt that he lacked the skill of leadership was my supervisor. The supervisor did not know how to communicate well, at times there were projects in the organization that I wanted to get involved in but he lacked the information about them. By the time he got back to me it would be too late for me to take part in them. He also did not value any of the input I had, this I concluded because he barely listens to the suggestions that I gave him. None of the ideas that I had were ever discussed or implemented. This made me feel very demotivated and I started looking for another employment, where I would feel more appreciated and motivated to get up every day and go to work.


Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2007). Management of organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.

Politis, J. D. (2001). The relationship of various leadership styles to knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(8), 354-364.

(Teacher Posted question need 250 response with a reference Response 4)

You did not really use the term manager, is a leader and a manager the same or different? Please explain.

Response 5 250 word response with a one citation

Leaders from our pasts can stand out in our memories for a number of reasons. In my experience the really bad ones are nearly as memorable as the really good ones. And although no one wants to work for a bad leader, it can give us the insight on what not to be or do just as a good leader inspires the opposite.

One element that I believe it is necessary to have as a leader and many bad ones lack is effective communication. As anyone who has ever been in a relationship can attest to, communication is one of the make or break points. This is true with the leader to subordinate relationship as well. Effective communication goes beyond just disseminating necessary information, it is about actually connecting to those to whom you are communicating. One of the things that I always attempt to do is find the best way to connect to each subordinate individually. Being that we are all different and all have different learning styles it is important for a leader to understand how to best connect with each of the people under them. Poor leaders do not take the time to understand this nuance and therefore cannot communicate effectively with their subordinates. It is also important for leaders to understand that communication is not strictly verbal. Everything a leader does is communicating something to his/her peers and subordinates. Renowned leadership speaker Simon Sinek says “every decision you make tells your employees something, for good or for ill” (as cited in Gale, 2017, para. 4).

Another trait that many bad leaders do not possess is self-reflection. In my estimation, self-reflection and introspection are traits that are key to being a good leader. How can a leader expect things of their people if they cannot take the time to look in the mirror and ensure that they are living up to the same standard? It can be easy for a bad leader to point the finger of blame at their team for failures that occur, it is much easier that way. A good leader should look inward and see if there is a way that their methods or actions can be changed to inspire the team to better results. I believe that this is one of the leadership traits that is hardest to teach, as it can be very uncomfortable for some to look at themselves under the microscope and but blame on their own shoulders. Dolan (2019) states that most effective leaders are self-aware and can utilize their self-reflection and introspection to become clear and focused whereas a poor leader can become frustrated and unfocused due to their lack of introspection.

Finally, the bad leader often does not know how to look out for their employees. This can take many forms, they could not show empathy or sympathy, they could be jealous of their employee’s success, or simply not care about the growth and well-being of their employees. I feel that leaders like this are the most harmful to an organization, and they should understand that their personnel are their most valuable asset and should be treated as such. Widener (n.d.) states that “successful people have a deep care for others” (para. 2). I think that is an important point because a workforce that feels connected and cared for is going to be a more effective one.

One of my leaders in the Army exhibited nearly every bad leadership trait known to man. The problem was, when superiors were around he put on a show that could have won an Oscar. He was a back-biter and tried to sew dissention wherever he could. He also just-so-happened to be rather unintelligent so anyone’s personal success was taken as an affront. He actively tried to block people’s advancement in rank or education. Unfortunately, this is one of the leaders that sticks out most from my ten years of active service even though I had scores of good ones.


Dolan, J. (2019). Time to think: The importance of introspection in leadership. Retrieved from

Gale, A. (2017). 3 communication tips every leader needs to know. Retrieved from

Widener, C. (n.d.). The seven c’s of success. Retrieved from

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