Memorandum on Theories and Data
Prior to beginning this assignment, please ensure that you complete the assigned readings in the Elliott and Fagin (2017) text and that you review Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps (Links to an external site.). In Chapter 3 of The Prevention of Crime, Elliott and Fagin indicate that crime prevention programs and approaches for law enforcement have largely drawn from deterrence theories and rational choice theories. Specifically, Elliott and Fagin state that “deterrence and rational choice theories have been the main theoretical perspectives guiding crime prevention, particularly as undertaken by law enforcement agents” (2017, Sec. 3.2, para. 6). Elliott and Fagin (2017) explore routine activities theory and discuss life course theories, which include strain theory, social learning theory, social control theory, and integrated theory. Elliott and Fagan (2017) also review connections between theory and data in Chapter 3. In this assignment, you will create a three-part memorandum for your supervisor in which you research a crime prevention program or a strategy for a crime prevention program, utilizing the format of an annotated bibliography. You will then assess the effectiveness of the crime prevention program or strategy and consider how theories may provide context for approaches to crime prevention.
You have been directed by your supervisor to prepare a memorandum which includes theories, data, and research findings that relate to a crime prevention program or strategy. Your research must include one scholarly article published within the past five years and one credible resource (website or online resource from a reputable source) that includes data on crime that relates to the crime prevention program or strategy. Use the Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) document for guidance. It is highly recommended that you view the Ashford University Library’s Database Search Tips (Links to an external site.) tutorial to aid you in finding articles written in the last five years.
You will then record your research in the format of an Annotated Bibliography. Refer to the elements of an Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.) and/or the Annotated Bibliography Tutorial (Links to an external site.) video for more information. Using the same headers as those in the Sample Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.), fill-out the sections with information that pertains to each of the two selected resources (one scholarly and one credible), all contained in the memo to your supervisor. (It is recommended that you review the Ashford Writing Center’s Writing a Business Memo (Links to an external site.) resource and the Sample Professional/Business Memo (Links to an external site.)).
Research and Evaluation
Once you have conducted your research, your memorandum should include the following bulleted elements with respect to the selected journal article and credible material.
- Summarize the scholarly resource, stating the type of crime prevention program or strategy that is being addressed in the article.
- Analyze key findings and recommendations.
- Relate crime data from a credible source to the crime prevention program or strategy addressed in the selected article.
- Assess the effectiveness of the crime prevention program or strategy discussed in the article with support from data from the selected article and/or data from a credible source.
Cite the source in APA Style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.), which is located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar in your online course.
- Include in-text citations that refer to the course text as well as a minimum of one credible resource consisting of a federal or state government website that includes content relevant to current crime prevention programs or practices. You can learn more about scholarly and credible resources within the Ashford University Writing Center’s Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)
The memorandum must compare and contrast how and to what extent each of the following theoretical approaches, drawn from Chapter 3 of the Elliott and Fagin (2017) text, could support the crime prevention strategy addressed in the selected article:
- General deterrence theory
- Specific deterrence theory
- Routine Activities theory
Next, compare and contrast how and to what extent each of the below theories, drawn from the life course approach discussed in Chapter 3 of the Elliott and Fagin (2017) text, could support the crime prevention program or strategy addressed in the selected article:
- Strain theory
- Social learning theory
- Social control theory
- Integrated theory
Finally, and although more than one theory may be relevant and applicable, recommend one of the foregoing seven theories that would best inform the crime prevention program or strategy in your selected crime prevention program. Submit your memorandum through Waypoint.
The Memorandum on Theories and Data
- Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)
- Must include a separate title page with the following:
- Title of Memorandum
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).
- Must use at least one scholarly source and one credible source in addition to the course text.
- The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
- Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
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